Nanotechnology companies do a variety of different things, much like any other research and development company, though most of their work is related to the development and implementation of nanotechnology. These companies are often involved in pharmaceutical or health care research and medical work, though other potential uses for their work may also be developed. This typically includes any type of work that could prove profitable for a company working on nanotechnology, such as defense or military work. Nanotechnology companies typically work to fund and perform research into the creation of nanomachines and similar applications of nanotechnology.
In general, nanotechnology companies invest in research and development of new technologies that take advantage of nanomachines and similar developing concepts. Nanomachines are devices that would be able to execute fairly complex programs, such as other machines and computers, but that exist at an extremely small scale. These devices would likely be microscopic in size and could be smaller than a single human cell. This type of technology would allow the development of tiny machines that could be injected into a person’s blood stream to battle diseases such as viruses and even battle the spread of cancerous cells within a person.
Nanotechnology companies often work on developing such technology, though in general these types of nanomachines are still largely hypothetical. One of the major issues that nanotechnology companies have to deal with is size and how devices of such incredible smallness could be programmed to run complex systems. After all, nanomachines designed to destroy cancerous cells in a human body need to be able to distinguish such cells from healthy ones. There are also potential military applications for such devices, since a nanomachine could potentially be designed and programmed to repair damaged cells within a human body.
In theory, nanotechnology companies could develop microscopic machines that could repair tissue and organs that have been injured on a battlefield. This would allow a soldier's wounds to be healed internally, requiring less effort from medical professionals and potentially saving hundreds or thousands of lives. Of course, there are other uses of nanomachines in military applications, and some nanotechnology companies are likely working to develop such devices.
A nanotechnology company typically hires scientists who specialize in molecular biology, computer science, and robotics. These nanotechnology companies also have to find a way to fund such research, often through contracts with government agencies or the development of commercial products. They also typically work to ensure that investments of time and money pay off, and that a final product is developed that can be utilized in a way that is financially beneficial for the company.