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What is Boron?

Mary McMahon
Updated May 21, 2024
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Boron is a nonmetallic element with the atomic number 5, identified by the symbol B on the periodic table. There are a number of uses for it, and like many elements, it appears in various forms which have different potential applications. Pure elemental boron, however, is not found in nature, and it must be chemically extracted. One of the more well known uses is in the compound known as borax.

The pure form of boron is black and crystalline, and extremely brittle. A more common variant is an amorphous form, which is soft, brown, and crumbly. Boron is often used in metal refining, because it is reactive at high temperatures. Although the element is nonmetallic, it is classified as a metalloid. Metalloids are elements that share certain properties with metals, making them useful in alloys and compounds used to chemically manipulate metals.

As is the case with many elements that do not occur naturally in elemental form, it took some time for scientists to isolate boron. In 1808, several scientists succeeded in isolating one form, although they did not recognize it as an element. In the early 1900s, chemists succeeded in creating pure boron, realizing more potential applications for the element. Methods for isolation are not widely standardized, leading to varying quality when it comes to the pure form.

Plants require boron in trace amounts to be healthy, although the threshold between enough and too much is rather small. Humans and animals also ingest small amounts through the plants that they eat, but it is not believed to be a necessary trace element in human nutrition. Boron is also used in a range of industries, as a dopant, abrasive, and ingredient in propellant mixtures, among other things.

Pure boron is not itself harmful, although many of the forms in which it appears are toxic or somewhat toxic. It may naturally appear in blends of toxic material, which can make handling some forms rather harmful. In addition, boron extraction generates harmful waste, since it must be heavily treated to extract a usable pure form. Even when this material is handled responsibly, it represents a potential environmental problem, as toxins are difficult to break down into a safe and stable form. Mining companies may try to cut corners with their toxic waste, generating a major pollution problem.

All The Science is dedicated to providing accurate and trustworthy information. We carefully select reputable sources and employ a rigorous fact-checking process to maintain the highest standards. To learn more about our commitment to accuracy, read our editorial process.
Mary McMahon
By Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a All The Science researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Discussion Comments
By anon131623 — On Dec 03, 2010

I am a builder of fishing rods. in germany they are using boron in the manufacturer of fishing rods. can you please point me in the right direction where i can get this material. Thanks, Gerhard

By anon82571 — On May 06, 2010

I am doing a homework project on boron, and I found this site extremely useful. You would not believe the small number of sites including info on boron -- none with as much as wisegeek! Thank you, thank you, thank you!

By anon70233 — On Mar 12, 2010

anon25006 - Boron may well be the energy source of the future, as it can be used in a form of nuclear fusion (the source of the sun's energy). Used in the right way, it will not produce the hard neutron radiation typical of Deuterium or Tritium based fusion reactors. For more information research "Bussard Fusion Reactor" or "Polywell fusion".

By anon59268 — On Jan 07, 2010

I wanted to know what very small amounts of boron mixed into my calcium/magnesium vitamin caps do. --bzdn

By anon52834 — On Nov 17, 2009

boron might have the possibility to be an electrical source in the future but i don't see it happening any time soon because it's not a metal or a conductor of anything.

By anon25006 — On Jan 22, 2009

Does Boran have any possible use as an energy source? e.g. to power automobiles?

By anon12100 — On Apr 30, 2008

I wanted to know when, what and how often would I use boron for. I have a hobby vineyard and a few high bush blueberries.

The vines are in their infancy and I have some blueberries that have been bearing fruit for a couple of years now but I have some new ones as well. Whoever receives this email, ...a response would be greatly appreciated. Thank you. Elsie Jeddry Weymouth, NS

Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a...

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