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Chemistry

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What is Gadolinium?

Mary McMahon
By
Updated: May 21, 2024

Gadolinium is a metallic chemical element that is classified in the rare earth metals. Most of the world's supply is found in various minerals, which are processed to extract usable elements; this element is extremely rare in a pure form because of its reactivity and vulnerability to corrosion. It has a number of industrial uses which ensure that there is a fairly steady demand for it. Consumers rarely interact directly with gadolinium, although they may own or use products that integrate this element.

In a pure form, gadolinium is a shiny white metal with a crystalline structure. It is extremely malleable, and it also reacts weakly with water. When it is exposed to moist air, it forms a distinctive flaky crust that will slough off to expose the underlying metal to the elements. The pure metal can be stored in an sealed container or in mineral oil so that this crust does not form and ruin it. On the periodic table of elements, it is identified with the atomic number 64 and the symbol Gd.

In medicine, gadolinium is used as a contrast agent for some medical imaging, and it also appears in some imaging equipment, such as MRI machines. The element is also used in a wide range of metal alloys, and it appears in some nuclear reactors as well. It is also used in the manufacture of synthetic gemstones, and it has some unusual magnetic properties which are sometimes harnessed in scientific experiments. At room temperature, gadolinium is paramagnetic, while it becomes ferromagnetic as it cools.

The discovery of gadolinium is credited to Jean de Marignac, who observed its characteristic spectroscopic signature in 1880. It took several more years for a French chemist to successfully isolate an oxide of the element, which was named for Johan Gadolin, a prominent Finnish scientist. Gadolinite is also named for Gadolin, although this mineral contains little to no gadolinium, which can be confusing.

Gadolinium should be handled carefully, because it can be toxic, like other rare earth elements. The precise toxicity of it is unknown, but it's safe to say that people should probably avoid inhaling fumes and particles from the metal while it is being worked, and it shouldn't be ingested either. Its medical use has been linked with complications in people with kidney disease, so medical professionals tend to use other contrast agents in imaging studies on people with kidney problems.

All The Science is dedicated to providing accurate and trustworthy information. We carefully select reputable sources and employ a rigorous fact-checking process to maintain the highest standards. To learn more about our commitment to accuracy, read our editorial process.
Mary McMahon
By Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a All The Science researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Discussion Comments
By anon123866 — On Nov 03, 2010

looks like a weird metal but also sort of interesting.

By anon123435 — On Nov 01, 2010

are there any environmental effects?

By anon46857 — On Sep 29, 2009

i'm doing a project on this.

By anon46819 — On Sep 29, 2009

Are there any uses for pure gadolinium?

By anon21947 — On Nov 24, 2008

the physical state at room temperature is 298 K

im working on chem project over this.

By anon19883 — On Oct 21, 2008

what is the physical state at room temperature?

By anon12582 — On May 09, 2008

it helps becuz i am doing a science project on it! Thanx! :)

Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a...

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