The different types of meteorologist tools are the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere instruments. Lower atmosphere instruments include thermometers, barometers, rain gauges, anemometers, and hygrometers. Rockets and satellites constitute the middle atmosphere instruments, while upper atmosphere instruments are composed of radiosondes and ozonesondes. In using the various meteorologist tools, overall data for weather forecasting, averages of climatological data, and data about the temperature, water vapor, wind profiles, and pollution may be acquired.
Early humans made observations about the weather and climate mostly by simply looking at the skies. Simple instruments such as weather vanes have then been invented, but they were valuable only for measuring climatological data, not for measuring data for weather forecasts; these simple instruments do not provide accurate measurements, which are essential in making weather forecasts. With the invention of modern meteorologist tools, however, quantitative measurements can be made by professional meteorologists. Scientists agree that the accuracy of modern meteorologist tools is superior for measuring climatological, atmospheric, and weather forecasting data.
The temperature-measuring instrument called thermometer is of two types: mechanical and electrical. Liquid-in-glass thermometers are mechanical, whereas resistance thermometers are electrical. Used in measuring the weight of air, scientifically termed as atmospheric pressure, barometers may be classified as mercury, or those used in research laboratories, and aneroid, or those used in homes and weather stations. Regular checking of an aneroid barometer against a mercury barometer is needed for calibration purposes. Additionally, an aneroid barometer may be made into a recording instrument called barograph by placing a pen to its pointer.
Considered the earliest of the meteorologist tools, the rain gauge is an easy-to-construct instrument that measures the amount of precipitation. In the fourth century BC, the oldest rain gauge data were recorded in India, where the presence of a network is believed to have existed due to records of precipitation averages in several areas. Meanwhile, the wind speed-measuring instrument called anemometer has “cups” that rotate around a shaft in the middle as the wind moves them. Humidity, or moisture content of the air, can be measured by using a hygrometer. The two types of hygrometers used by meteorologists are psychrometer and absorption hygrometer.
A rocket is an internal combustion engine that carries its own fuel and oxidizer, which is why it can operate within and be used to study the Earth’s atmosphere. Examples of payloads, or meteorologist tools that rockets carry, include pressure and density sensors. Meanwhile, weather satellites are used by meteorologists to observe clouds and weather systems from above. The use of satellite data has resulted in an increased accuracy of weather forecasts.
Radiosondes are small radio transmitters that were developed to collect atmospheric measurements and to transmit data collected to weather stations on Earth. Earlier versions had a clock or windmill that is useful for instant recording of data, whereas modern versions are equipped with barometers, thermometers, and hygrometers. Together with ozone level-measuring instruments called ozonesondes, radiosondes are carried into the atmosphere by an unmanned balloon.