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What is Boyle's Law?

Michael Anissimov
By
Updated May 21, 2024
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Boyle's Law is a basic law in chemistry describing the behavior of a gas held at a constant temperature. The law, discovered by Robert Boyle in 1662, states that at a fixed temperature, the volume of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure exerted by the gas. In other words, when a gas is pumped into an enclosed space, it will shrink to fit into that space, but the pressure that the gas puts on the container will increase. Boyle's Law can be written out mathematically:

P x V = constant

In this equation, P = pressure and V = volume.

Boyle's Experiment

To prove the law, Boyle pumped oxygen (a gas) into a J-shaped tube of glass that was sealed at one end. Using a burner to keep the oxygen at a constant temperature, he then poured different amounts of mercury into the tube, which varied the pressure on the oxygen. He found that the more pressure he applied, the smaller the volume of the oxygen, and this reduction happened at a constant rate.

Boyle's Law specifically relates to an ideal gas — that is, a theoretical gas that is made up of random particles that do not interact. Although no real gasses are ideal gasses, most do display these ideal characteristics under normal conditions.

Real-World Examples

One example of Boyle's Law in action can be seen in a balloon. Air is blown into the balloon; the pressure of that air — a gas — pushes on the rubber, making the balloon expand. If one end of the balloon is squeezed, making the volume smaller, the pressure inside increases, making the un-squeezed part of the balloon expand out. There is a limit to how much the gas can be compressed, however, because eventually the pressure becomes so great that it causes the balloon (or any container) to break.

A different example is a syringe for taking blood. An empty syringe has a fixed amount of gas (air) in it; if the plunger is drawn back without the needle end being inserted into anything, the volume of the tube will increase and the pressure will drop, causing more air to move into the tube to equalize the pressure. If the syringe is inserted into a vein and the plunger drawn back, blood will flow into the tube since the pressure in the vein is higher than the pressure in the syringe.

Another way of describing Boyle's law is that when pushed, a gas tends to push back. Without the massive amount of gravity holding them together, the solar system's gas planets would rapidly diffuse in all directions, quickly depressurizing. In this case, the pressure of gravity regulates the volume of the gases around these planets.

Charles and Guy-Lussac's Law

The inverse of Boyle's Law is Charles and Gay-Lussac's Law, named for the two French scientists who discovered it. Charles and Gay-Lussac's Law shows that the volume of a gas increases or decreases according to temperature. Written out mathematically, the law looks like this:

V = constant x T

In this equation, V = volume and T = temperature. While Boyle's Law focuses on constant temperature and changing pressure, Charles and Gay-Lussac's Law focuses on changing temperature.

All The Science is dedicated to providing accurate and trustworthy information. We carefully select reputable sources and employ a rigorous fact-checking process to maintain the highest standards. To learn more about our commitment to accuracy, read our editorial process.
Michael Anissimov
By Michael Anissimov , Writer
Michael Anissimov is a dedicated All The Science contributor and brings his expertise in paleontology, physics, biology, astronomy, chemistry, and futurism to his articles. An avid blogger, Michael is deeply passionate about stem cell research, regenerative medicine, and life extension therapies. His professional experience includes work with the Methuselah Foundation, Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence, and Lifeboat Foundation, further showcasing his commitment to scientific advancement.

Discussion Comments

By anon946795 — On Apr 22, 2014

Boyle's Law: 1.00 L of gas at a standard temperature and pressure is compressed to 473 mL. What is the new pressure of the gas?

By anon193518 — On Jul 05, 2011

good but needs graphical explanation of boyles law.

By anon166991 — On Apr 11, 2011

how is this law useful?

By anon160225 — On Mar 15, 2011

how to look for the right solvent?

By anon159725 — On Mar 13, 2011

what is the experiential explanation to this concept?

By anon123309 — On Nov 01, 2010

During a post mortem where a respiratory disease is suspected, you have been asked to regulate the pressure needed to inflate the lungs to their full capacity with is assumed to be 6 litres. the current capacity of the deceased is 3400ml and the pressure recorded at the capacity is 180kpa.

Applying v1p1=v2p2 find the pressure needed to reach the desired lung volume. Please help!

By anon48802 — On Oct 15, 2009

If you are assuming a constant temperature, the original volume was 65.42 L.

By anon26962 — On Feb 22, 2009

What's the answer for the question?

By anon24806 — On Jan 18, 2009

When l75.47 g of carbon dioxide gas were changed from 49,715.88 mmHg to 244.92 atm, what was the original volume (V) if the new volume was measured at 8.58 l? Put your answer in two decimal places.

Michael Anissimov

Michael Anissimov

Writer

Michael Anissimov is a dedicated All The Science contributor and brings his expertise in paleontology, physics, biology...
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