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What is the Big Bang Theory?

The Big Bang Theory is a monumental scientific explanation of the universe's birth, suggesting it started from an infinitely dense point that explosively expanded 13.8 billion years ago. This event set the cosmos in motion, leading to the stars, planets, and galaxies we observe today. How did this singular event shape the vast universe we're part of? Join us to uncover the cosmic tale.
Michael Anissimov
Michael Anissimov
Michael Anissimov
Michael Anissimov

The Big Bang theory is science's best explanation of how the universe was created. The theory asserts that our entire universe was created when a tiny (billions of times smaller than a proton), super-dense, super-hot mass exploded and began expanding very rapidly, eventually cooling and forming into the stars and galaxies with which we are familiar. This event is said to have happened approximately 15 billion years ago. Rather than expanding outward into some preexisting vacuum, the event of the Big Bang was space itself expanding - perhaps at speeds greater than light. (While Einstein's theory of relativity forbids anything within space from traveling faster than light, it sets no limitations on how fast the fabric of space itself may expand.)

The Big Bang theory was originally developed in the late 1920s by Georges-Henri Lemaître, a Belgian Catholic priest and astronomer, an early advocate of solutions to the general relativity field equations which predicted our universe was expanding. (For cosmological theories to be taken seriously, they must pose possible solutions to Einstein's general relativity field equations.) Though the expanding-universe solution to the field equations was derived by the Russian cosmologist Alexander Friedman in 1922, Lemaître was the first to realize that a continuously expanding universe implies that at some point in the past the universe must have been much denser and smaller, even atom-sized.

Outer space.
Outer space.

The Big Bang theory is supported primarily by two major lines of evidence - first, the fact that all galaxies are rapidly moving away from each other (confirmed by Edwin Hubble in 1929), and secondly, the presence of the cosmic microwave background radiation, or the "echo" of the Big Bang. The cosmic microwave background radiation was not discovered until 1965, and up to this point, scientists were divided between the Big Bang theory and its rival, Fred Hoyle's steady state model, which asserted that the universe was expanding, but staying basically the same because new matter was continuously being created.

Since the late 1960s, the Big Bang theory has been the dominant explanation for the birth of our universe. Fred Hoyle's steady state model has been discarded. Most of cosmology since that time has consisted of modifications and extensions of Big Bang theory. Because physicists have not yet formulated a consistent theory that explains how gravity operates on extremely small scales (like those present at the instant of the Big Bang), cosmologists are unable to formulate theories as to what happened before about 10^-43 seconds after the Big Bang. Our universe may have originated as a pointlike entity with nearly-infinite density, or perhaps something else. Our mathematics, instruments, and scientific methodologies may need to be substantially improved before any further progress is made.

Michael Anissimov
Michael Anissimov

Michael is a longtime AllTheScience contributor who specializes in topics relating to paleontology, physics, biology, astronomy, chemistry, and futurism. In addition to being an avid blogger, Michael is particularly passionate about stem cell research, regenerative medicine, and life extension therapies. He has also worked for the Methuselah Foundation, the Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence, and the Lifeboat Foundation.

Learn more...
Michael Anissimov
Michael Anissimov

Michael is a longtime AllTheScience contributor who specializes in topics relating to paleontology, physics, biology, astronomy, chemistry, and futurism. In addition to being an avid blogger, Michael is particularly passionate about stem cell research, regenerative medicine, and life extension therapies. He has also worked for the Methuselah Foundation, the Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence, and the Lifeboat Foundation.

Learn more...

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Discussion Comments


The biggest problem with the big bang theory is that it tries to create something from nothing. The universe is real and logical. The big bang theory is not. I guess you armchair physicists don't exist. Happy trails.


The 'big bang' never happened 'to' the universe, but it does happen 'in' the universe in the form of super and hyper novas. If we could teleport ourselves to the edge of the 'big bang' universe, what would you expect to see? Darkness beyond and galaxies looking back?

I believe what we would see is that which we see here. The supposed edge is not an edge at all, but is a limit to our current e-m viewing capability. The 'big bang' theory of today is a limited theory which appears to be comfortable for limited minds. Happy trails.


The problem with some scientific theory today, is that it requires as much faith as religion in general. I am not religious. I am all for science, but I also believe some scientific theory is being treated like a religion. Religion tends to straight-jacket thinking just as some scientific theories. An open mind and logic are the keys to understanding anything. Dogma, whether religious or scientific simply hinders. Scientists, religious or not, can fall or be forced into the trap. Happy trails.


Do you think it will expand endlessly?


@Cado3; If you're really 12 years old, you should continue with your schooling. The Big Bang has not been proven wrong. There is a lot of evidence that supports this theory and indicates we're on the right track. And all of you who have commented here based on your faith should just stop unless you have real evidence. Faith is not evidence; it's nothing more than a human belief.


The Big Bang Theory makes sense because everything grouped together in s space the size of a pixel and couldn't keep together so it exploded. God can't be real because how would an "all powerful" being pop out of nowhere?


This was a decent article, however, I still have many questions, most of which no one knows the answer to but I'm still interested. From what or where did the small mass come from and what was condensing it?


Have you noticed that deities seem to get saddled with that which man does not comprehend? People will believe want they want to believe, no matter the evidence to the contrary. That is human nature. I believe the big bang theory is wrong. I believe the universe is not expanding. I believe it is a self-balancing system and will last forever.

But that doesn't mean the earth, solar system or our milky way galaxy will last forever. It does mean the process of the universe will last forever, and they are part of the process. Man certainly cannot control this process; he can only attempt to control his environment and we know what a small piece of the universe that is. Have you noticed how man's understanding areas of unknown tends to push out the deities? And, finally, I believe that mans understanding of the universe will eventually unfold as it should.


OK, people, The Big Bang theory has been proven wrong. Stop bickering! If you must know, creation is the most plausible explanation. If the world shrunk 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 times smaller than the eye of a flea, then black holes would not be the most dense thing in the universe. This also goes against the second law of thermodynamics which states, "Anything organized becomes disorganized over time." This process can be reversed temporarily, but only by intelligent, directed energy. The Big Bang is a flop. (By the way, I am 12 years old.)


It takes a lot less faith to believe in a deity than it does to believe that the entire universe was shrunk smaller than a proton. Personally, I believe in neither. I do believe in free thinking and logic and that billions of dollars have been wasted on bad science.

Educating generations with this science has created an impossible situation. The physics community has literally educated itself into a corner. Here's the real problem. Just as people of faith would have trouble identifying the Messiah should he show up, so the physics community would have trouble recognizing the real answers, because they would definitely shake up the way they think. My question for wise geeks would be, "why should anyone bother?"


So if the big bang actually did happen, who or what created what exploded?


@Glorify: I tried for years to believe in God, yet if he does indeed exist, he is not the perfect entity believed by you, as he has done nothing to help me. Stop wasting your time on spirits. It's the living who have truly changed this world.


@elama: If you know your physics regarding E-M energy, you would know why I am comfortable with my conclusions.

The E-M spectrum charts include only the useful, detectable range. It extends beyond in both directions. Of course, optical detectors don't see microwaves, but because it seems to be coming from everywhere, it simply means you have E-M degraded energy coming from everywhere. And what do astronomers for sure know exists everywhere out to the visible and radiotelescope range? Galaxies (E-M sources). I don't question there data, I question their conclusions.

Gamma is not the upper limit and radio is not the lower limit. If you had a detector large enough(or in this case, techno-clever enough), you would find that each galaxy has its own EM signature, like a fingerprint. Hubbles' data is not straight line conclusive. Look at the data. Frame a theory that seems to work. Look at the data again, and so on. Eventually you will frame a theory that not only works but leads to new insights, has answers for many of the problems of physics today, and seems to put it all together.

I do appreciate your comments. Live long and draw your own conclusions.


@Elama: I believe you are mistaken. The redshift is a shift in the frequency of light (Em) wave, not a degrading of EM waves as you suggest and yes, this has been tested numerous times since Hubble discovered the shift in 1929 and since 1965 when the cosmic background radiation was discovered. The scientists in 1965 were also using a RF telescope, not an optical scope, so there would be no lensing or refractory effect you refer to. I did enjoy your post!


Hence a main law of physics we've always been standing on the evidence of God. Neither the big bang theory nor the theory of evolution have ever been evidence against God either.


It would appear I am not alone. I just watched "the big bang never happened" online. I didn't realize such a battle was going on in the physics community. It looks like things will sort themselves out. It's also comforting to know that my thinking is on point. Anyone out there have an opinion?


@Elama: If you knew what causes gravity, then you would know why the big crunch of the big bang theory is impossible. I am amazed that someone like Hawking would get it wrong. I'm still waiting to see if others have figured it out.


@Elama: If it were discovered that the universe was not expanding, would that make the job of unifying theories simpler for physicists?


@Elama: Here's a question for Big Bang theorists. If black holes represent the ultimate density of matter in the universe and they, like the one at the center of our Milky-Way, may be light-years in diameter, then, how is it possible that the whole universe could be shrunk to the size of a proton? So black holes are not the ultimate density?

Questions like this are what made me realize that the Big Bang is really the Big Bust. Could some Big Bang theorists (not the TV show) please respond?


@elama: It would appear that 'silence is golden'. While working on my 'theory of everything' I came to realize that the evidence supporting the 'big bang' theory was faulty. Just to be straight, I'm not dissing science; I am dissing conclusions that have been drawn. Because I believe the theory, which those conclusions support, are leading us down the wrong path, I was compelled to counter them.


@Elama157: Since no one countered my last post, I will continue. Because light has constant speed, our visible universe is like a time attenuated light bubble bounded by microwave energy. The red shift of ever distant galaxies and the cosmic background microwave radiation are evidence of light wave degradation and not of an expanding universe. I therefore do not support the big bang theory. It then follows that this cosmic microwave background radiation is really the light degraded image of trillions upon trillions of way-distant galaxies, and, this E-M degradation continues on down the EM range. Suddenly the known universe gets very much larger (would anyone be surprised). I can visualize this but I am not a supercomputer.

Current science may be able to correct for this light degradation and get a clearer image of what is beyond the m-w barrier. I believe enough money has been wasted trying to decipher the "big bang". It's time to move on. What do you think?


@Elama61512: The "big bang" theory is really the "big mistake" theory. Hubble and the boys who discovered the cosmic background radiation both misinterpreted their data. They were not aware of the effect on light which has traveled through the vast areas of the universe ... with all its galaxies, nebuli, dust, gas, and dark matter. This causes lensing and refractory effects on that light, degrading its wavelength (not its speed)... therefore, the closer the galaxy, the less the light degrade; the farther away the galaxy, the greater the light degrade.

Light degrade is wavelength degrade and this means 'red' shift. As light(em) continues to degrade (with the vastness of space) it enters the microwave range(cosmic background em). Their conclusions made sense years ago, but not now. I would appreciate your thoughts.


I don't believe in God. I don't believe in the Big Bang theory and yet I offer an analogy of the physics of creation which may be from the bible. First there was darkness, then there was light followed by the firmament. Okay, picture a universe filled with hydrogen: "darkness". Picture the hydrogen gathering to form stars: "light". Some stars end in supernovas which yield the heavier elements: firmament. I believe this bible story may be correct.

I also believe that this kind of evolution happens whether you want it to or not. My question to people of faith would be: What's God got to do with it? My question to physicists would be: Is this analogy any less credible than the "big bang"?


Why can't people just discuss things civilly? Nobody learns much when they're being patronized and/or cussed at. Seriously, you'd think we'd have learned to calm down and communicate, but I guess our lifestyles don't allow for that.

Humanity is so screwed up I don't know how we can fix this self-made mess with anything short of international disaster.


It's funny I've never had a scientist come knock on my door and try to convert me to their theories. Why are you here? If, as you said, you know little about the big bang theory, maybe it's time for you to start learning what the truth is.


Yes indeed, scientists are yet discovering what Allah did, so this discovery must lead them to faith and devotion in Allah. He is the creator of all of mankind. To have more information just research into the holy Quran.


@anon260149 and anon259832: When science stops wasting time on blue pills, birth control pills, pills that treat the symptoms but do not provide a cure, and other revenue-generating “research” that wastes federal tax dollars and the valuable time of pharmaceutical companies (who are, by the way, making money hand over fist), maybe someone will focus long enough to find a cure for cancer, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and other major illnesses. Unfortunately, when cures are found, revenue goes down. So they are in no hurry to find the cures.

Until the cures for what's killing us are found, this dialogue between me and thee falls into the category of Star Trek-type star gazing – just something to do.

The Big Bang theory is just what it says: a theory – nothing more. Evolution is also just a theory. Neither can be proven.

Today, I have seen so much meanness on the Internet. So much hate. People are showing their true colors. I don’t have the heart for antagonism; there’s just too much of it going on right now. As stated before, you have a choice. And from the looks of it, you have made up your minds, anon260149 and anon259832. But check it out: there are two links on this page titled “Is There a God?” That article speaks to the scientific argument you seek.


Science and scientific thought is not purposed or furthered to disprove the existence of God. You God believers need to get over yourselves. There are plenty of faith based fanatics troubling society today.


Glorify, If as you say you don't know any thing about the big bang, then why would you post to this forum while trying to convert people to your faith? This seems very off putting.


@anon258846: “The fool has said in his heart, ‘There is no God.’” That is in the Bible.

1. What “bad stuff” are you referring to?

2. What “evidence” do you seek?

It is about more than just the “book”. It is about practical application. The learning process is comprised of theory, practice and practical application. The book is used throughout the learning process – it is a part of theory, then practice, and finally practical application. Practical application is where you apply what you have learned through theory and practice. Learning is an ongoing process; we never stop learning.

I recognize that this is a forum related to scientific research, and I will, therefore, not spar with you, or anyone else, over this issue. My dad used to tell us, “Don’t argue with people about the Bible; even the drunks on the streets know the Bible. And the devil knows it too.”

I will tell you this: Believing in God takes faith -- not the kind of proof you are seeking. The proof is all around us – every day. You have the option of believing or not believing. The choice is yours. But take it from someone who knows: God is real.

If you will, refer back to what anon144094 (Post 72) wrote: “Wouldn’t you rather have believed in God and be wrong, than not believed and have been wrong?” (sic) That is a risk none of us can afford.

3. On your comment about reading the Bible: I don’t write about things that I do not know. Please do not be offended. It is not my intent to offend you or anyone else. I just want to share with you what I know to be the truth, from my personal experience. Now you stay well; life is too short to waste on “stuff”.


@glorify: 1. Read the bible. - and then you talk about god's love. You haven't truly read the bible and filter out the bad stuff. Anyway, why would you believe a book that has no real evidence to support its claims? You've been easily swayed by the art of crap from articulate preachers.

@post 70: The world isn't fine tuned; we were able to adapt to live in it. We would die if we inhaled substantial quantities of methane, yet there are tube worms and other life forms living near volcanic vents spewing hot methane, which they use for energy. There are micro organism found in highly acidic environments such as the stomach. These life forms adapted to the environment and not the other way around. The world isn't fine tuned.


I'm afraid that I am not in the least impressed by the above comments of "Glorify". I am a student (informal) of philosophy, and one of the main subjects is whether a "God" exists. To start from first principles, there has to be something rather than nothing. As David Hume said, there is no reason to believe other than the fact that the material reality of which we all constitute a part is the only absolute reality, and so it is quite metaphysically superfluous to postulate the existence of a "Divine Creator" of the universe. Thus, if a "God" is said to exist, it is only in a metaphysical sense, in which you may or not believe, as it suits you, but it is certainly not the case that "God" exists in any meaningful concrete sense, as "He" is transcendent by definition.

As regards the Big Bang, then quantum physics is a quite sufficient explanation, since the universe was (in an infinite sense) created from nothing (i.e. relative to human understanding, which was not an absolute nothingness by any means), and there is no need to postulate the Big Bang as "God's" work.


To those who have already decided that there is no God, what if you are wrong? God does not attempt to prove his own existence, so why should any human try to prove or disprove his existence? It is from my personal relationship with God that I say to you, God does exist. He is not a myth; He is real.

Test your theories about God. Years of theorizing about the big bang and evolution have rendered no viable results, but without telescopes and scientific research, you can find out for yourself the real truth about God. Before you give up your trying, try this:

(1) Read the Bible, so that you will first know who is God, what are his ways, and what is his love for us.

(2) Seriously ask God to come into your life. Acknowledge him and his Son, Jesus Christ. He says that, if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God has raised Jesus from the dead, you will be saved.

The eternity that is spoken of in some comments by others on this platform, refers to life after death. God promises that those who believe in him will spend eternity with him, rather than outside his presence, in hell with those who did not believe. There is life after death; it is up to each of us to decide where we will spend that life: in heaven with God, or in hell with Satan. We get to choose.

(3) Develop a relationship with God. Pray to him. God speaks to us through his written word, the Bible, and through the spoken word, via the preacher. We speak to God through our prayers.

(4) Pray about each thing in your life, before you attempt to do it. Proverbs 16:3 states: “Commit to the Lord whatever you do, and your plans will succeed.” (New International Version)

(5) Study the Bible as diligently as you study unexplainable scientific theories, which attempt to disprove the existence of God. Get into a good Bible-teaching church, so that you can hear the word from the preacher and study the word with others. You can also go online to get some of your right-now questions answered.

(6) Then watch God work in your life. God will prove himself to you, over and over again, and you will find that he is true to his word. God will take care of you, better than you can take care of yourself.

This is serious business. Have faith, and trust in God. He is real.

Most of the comments on this big bang issue seem to come from people who have not given themselves a chance to get to know God. Don’t spend a lifetime speculating about God; don’t spend a lifetime not knowing. Test your theories. Speak to God from your heart; get to know him. Let him help you live an abundant life. Don’t waste valuable time building up your ego over something about which you have no clue, just because you are stuck in “I Know” mode. You know nothing, if you have not given God the opportunity to enrich your life. Believe it, God is real.

Speaking as one who has experienced the goodness of God, I can tell you that he has never left me. Nor has he ever forsaken me. He is always there for me. In times when I saw no way to survive this economic crisis, and before, God has kept me. He has supplied all of my needs. He has answered my questions and concerns. He has pulled me out of close scrapes. He has shielded me from evil and from dangers. He has taught me not to fear any man. He has taken away all of my fear and anxiety over life’s issues. He has shown me his love for me. He has wiped away my tears; he quickly turns my sadness into joy. He has given me sweet rest when I could not sleep at night. I could go on, but this message would be too lengthy.

God created all things. All power belongs to him. He has the last word in everything. He is bigger than everything in our lives, because he is God. He is the Creator. Is the servant greater than the master? No. Trying to prove anything over God is a waste of valuable time and energy.

Just give God a chance is all I ask. After that, all of that theoretical, scientific stuff will seem asinine and frivolous to you, and you’ll wonder why so many people spent so much time trying to fathom the origin of the universe. God created the universe, and he maintains it. God is.


@anon248356, Post 92: That was a very thoughtful comment, but I wonder if people here know about the pantheism of Spinoza (i.e., "god" is immanent in the material universe), since, that would take into account the fact that the "Big Bang" apparently demonstrates the universe as humans understand it was created, presumably, in a material dimensional context that transcends human understanding (just as human understanding obviously transcends the cognitive understanding of our pets, say). However, the problem of pantheism is that, apparently, in a material concrete sense, there is really no difference theoretically between atheism and pantheism. Moreover, I have always been inclined to atheism (since I became philosophically inclined), as the definition of "God" is surely a transcendental entity (as well as, perhaps being immanent, as in Hegel); but surely that it a meaningless concept, and is just metaphysically superfluous, as "anon" above said, since it is only concrete entities that exist, and "God" transcends material reality necessarily.

I hope, therefore, I have made myself understood, and I would certainly be interested in what others think of this.


There is no god because that is just a metaphysically superfluous concept, simply relating to human consciousness, so that notions such as the Big Bang have no relevance to whether a god exists or not. In other words, people simply want to dominate other people and they bring in this superman concept to help them in this task.


This is all a load of crap. Consciousness existed first, and all matter was derived from that. As for an "almighty god," that's another piece of bollocks.


The Big Bang theory is a legitimate and knowingly accurate and accepted way of explaining how the universe came to be and I just don't see how people could overlook the justifying and conclusive evidence that scientists have discovered and say that the creation of the universe is the work of an almighty god!

Doesn't it seem more likely that there was an explosion based on scientific fact, rather than to believe that there is a man in the clouds waving his fingers and creating stuff? How is background radiation explained without the big bang? Did god just magic up some 'spacey stuff' to cover for the fact that he made the universe? The answer is no. Where did this radiation originate without the explanation of the big bang? The universe just cannot simply be possible without the science of the big bang.

Look at the science of it all! Use your logic! The Big Bang Theory!


you have all argued over this subject matter, and yes you all have a point, but i have my question too. it goes like this. if there was a big explosion that happened before, which made all things in the universe come into existence, can anybody tell what particular explosive element it was, and who is responsible for the said explosion?


I am blessed to have come to know God. The understanding of him explains the foundation of life. If you seriously look at both angles because you want to know the truth, you will come to the conclusion that only something greater can create something less and not the other way around. The big bang could easily have happened with the snap of God's thumb.

I just wouldn't come up with my own theory and then throw the "idea" of God away because one's theory doesn't require "faith". In the end it requires more faith to accept man's version of how the puzzle came to be. And if you do accept it, well then why did it happen? It can't just have happened because it happened. That's bad logic and a poor reason for giving life its intelligence.

If we are all a product of our environment, then what was the environment that allowed the big bang to come to be and who allowed it? You can't even think in that frame. This is what leads me to one conclusion: God exists because nothing can or has been explained before him.

It all boils down to a choice to accept you are from a greater source, or just the result of randomness. My question to all is what gives an atom energy? There is no reason for it to have energy unless there is a plan to use it. Things just don't do or exist after something made it for the sake of itself.

I just can't simply accept randomness when everything in life functions so well when planned. Why does man want to create and have organization? It reflects God. We are a mirror of him. Look at the world, minus sin see what man has created with his mind. You don't have to look into space for answers when you're living proof. Think about it.


In answer to the question of where all the matter came from, I think Neil Hogan's paradox theory is probably one of the better suggestions. With no time existing, a vibrating superstring would be going infinitely fast so would appear next to itself over and over and over, combining, changing, creating new types of matter and could probably be the cause of time itself.

This means that everything in the universe is made up of the same superstring - not a copy of one - the actual same one! A bit difficult to get your head around unless you know a bit about time travel!


We cannot even travel to the planet next to us, yet we know the origins of the universe.

If there is one thing that is constant throughout history, its man's arrogance.

Is it so hard to just say "We don't know, and probably won't for thousands of years". It's like we get a little bit of information, and suddenly we know everything.

If people want to be open-minded, it starts with being humble. The big bang theory is a good concept, but it really is a quasi-educated shot in the dark at this stage.


Its quite amusing how so many people can so easily prove Einstein, Hawking, and so many more of the world's most brilliant minds wrong, with their "vast and total comprehension".

It's not a religious debate. Its' an account of how the universe came to be and the rules that govern it. Is it so impossible to think that an omnipotent and omnipresent God put forth the rules that govern the natural world?

As, I don't know, a plan? Geez Louise!


Explosions in (due to a frictionless space) send energy/matter moving forward forever. It wouldn't stop to create things. Considering this hot/dense whatever exploded, the heat plus explosion would have annihilated the materials.


The Big bang theory, as it is known scientifically today, is nothing but a fairy tale. It is based on scientific extremes that just cannot happen.

It is interesting to read that there is always a debate of science vs. religion. I am sorry but the Big bang theory and the theory on the evolution of life is also a religion! You have to really assume and believe a whole lot of unproven assumptions to make this model work.

A good book to read regarding this is "The Evolution Handbook" by Vance Ferrell (previously known as "The Evolution Cruncher"). This book rips all scientific lies and assumptions to shreds regarding this topic.

I do believe that an all powerful, all knowing God of the universe created everything in literally six days, exactly as the Bible says. Hey, I cannot scientifically prove the existence of God because I believe that is impossible. I do, however, know that it takes a lot less faith to believe in God than it does to believe in what these so-called modern scientists are trying to sell us.


to post 70, the universe would have turned out to be "tuned" some way. it had to happen in some shape or form. it's just that the way it is tuned gave rise to us as humans. it's like you throw a rock in the air. it is going to fall down somewhere but you don't know where.


thanks i really understood the big bang theory! -lucy


Here's an experiment for someone: Go to the dump and pick out two pieces of garbage, then throw them in the air. If you get a beautiful new sports car, the Big Bang Theory is true.


Wouldn't you rather have believed in God and be wrong, than not believed and have been wrong?


Thank you so much. I was wondering what this was.


If everything was caused by the big bang, how do you explain the little things that are set just right to keep human sustainability, like the fine tuning of gravity protons, to electrons' co2? Those are dials set to specifically the right spot to maintain life on earth.

who is the great fine tuner of the universe?


i believe in god, the big bang and the evolution theory.


How can we use the big bang theory to predict the location of future planets in our universe?


in response to post 60: this "big bang theory" that you're talking about is not even close to the big bang theory. But let me poke some holes in your argument anyway.

If indeed, the immediate effect of the big bang theory was to create electrons, protons, and neutrons (which it was not), you state how could they form an atom? Well, the first atoms formed were hydrogen and helium. And what is hydrogen? It's a proton.

My question to you is how could it not form a perfect atom, when the reactants you described were examples of perfect atoms.

Also, you got the second law of thermodynamics wrong. It's an increase in entropy, which is not moving to an energy-less state. Big bang theory adheres to this law perfectly fine. In fact, it pretty much describes the second law of thermodynamics.


i believe in the big bang theory but i also think that above you have said that the universe was formed from a particle which was a billion times shorter than that of a proton, etc., but have you thought ever that if all the energies are suspended in it then what would happened in that big bang particle?

all the mass, gravity, etc. is suspended. Doesn't it look something weird in hearing? how could that be possible. just think over it. however if a big bang particle is expanding all over you have to travel more.


and the rest of the universe...


okay question: did the big bang give the materials to start the solar system?


The Big Bang Theory is an interesting read, on par with "War of the Worlds" and "Avatar". However, there is no part of the Big Bang theory that is factual aside from the constant separation of the solar systems in the universe.

Let's take a look at expansion. Assuming everything up until then had occurred, when the super-dense mass exploded, all the neurons, protons, and electrons (formed from nothing) would have immediately radiated away from the center of the explosion in a fraction of a second. Since the particles were all moving away from the center through empty space at such a speed, it would have been impossible for them to change direction or speeds, much less change enough to create perfect atoms.

At that explosion, all the particles would have been moving at the same velocity, despite the belief that objects near the center of the center of the explosion would be hindered by the outer particles. Any bomb explosion clears out anything in its path. As a result, the particles would not be a cloud covering the universe, but a large sphere that is constantly expanding.

Which brings up the Second Law of Thermodynamics which, briefly stated, states that the natural state of matter is to move to an energy-less state.

Put simpler, matter naturally wants to take the path of least resistance. If a building is not taken care of, it will crumble and all the stone, brick, glass, and iron would eventually decay into dust. There is nothing in the universe which moves to a perfect state.


It seems this discussion has turned into opposing belief systems and not about scientific theory. Scientific discovery and inquiry are not about advancing beliefs, they're about advancing our knowledge.

The “Big Bang Theory” is just that a scientific theory -- an explanation for observable phenomenon using scientific methodology to determine the causes for the phenomena and to understand what forces may account for said phenomena.

Human understanding is best developed via interplay between theory and practice. We need sound theories to inform and guide our practical activities, in order to move forward and flourish as beings. Theology and all the various religious belief systems have a place in human understanding, as does science. The discoveries and ideas in physics and astronomy have been enormously beneficial for all of humanity; we've learned how stars shine and how most of the elements were formed inside these stars. We have learned to use these same elements to send human beings to the moon and probes beyond our own solar system.

At this point, we don't know exactly how every stage of creation occurred and evolved to what we see today. M-theory is attempting to explain how the singularity may have originated to begin this whole process and there are many scientists working on how life may have originated on our planet. What we do know for certain is we are here now, we do exist and the physical universe exists.

It doesn't necessarily matter whether or not you believe in a god, gods, or a particular philosophy. The fact is we do exist, period. Life exists on this planet, in this solar system, and there's a good chance it exists elsewhere in this enormous universe.

A bigger question is: how do we reconcile our differences and where will we go from here?


If energy cannot be created nor destroyed where did the energy for the expansion of this super dense singularity come from? Anyone mind explaining?


I believe that the big bang could have some facts but not the entire truth. in the future, scientists will come up with new theories because of advances in technology, but to me the big bang theory does not mean that God does not exist. it could mean that God put things in place for the big bang to happen and knows much more than we could ever dream of knowing.


that our entire universe was created when a tiny (billions of times smaller than a proton), super-dense, super-hot mass..

some one explain to me who made this tiny mass?


not enough room to explain god, who i believe created earth.


Even better question what if space is finite and time is infinite? think about that.


confused chic said- ``i have a few questions about what anon7798 posted. you figure if the big bang theory is really what created earth....what created man? science suggests apes...well, what created the apes?....did they evolve from stars and gases and dust particles and such? one way or another there has to be a higher power. in other words GOD. He had to create something that lived for all of us to be here. but i would love to hear feedback about what you think happened. if the big bang created earth and all solar systems and such...what created LIFE?``

Well, first of all I have to say that I personally don't believe that any sort of `god` exists. Secondly, the Big Bang didn`t create only the world, but the whole universe and time. That means that there was no such existence like we are currently in.

Read this part carefully: You can't say what was before that because time itself didn't exist before the Big Bang. It doesn't make any sense to try to understand what was before big bang. the Big Bang was the start of the time-space graph. The part where time=0 was the moment of Big Bang.

Another misunderstanding about the Big Bang is that most people imagine it as a great explosion. Big Bang was not an explosion in space, but it was the expansion of space itself.

About the Humans: The man most probably evolved from an ape like creature who was evolved from some other ancient creature and so on. Evolution is a sort of mutation but in a good way. If a mutation takes place and it is useful, it is defined as evolution.

Useful mutations usually occur very hard and they don't occur so often, and even if they occur; they are on a small scale.

When it comes to answering your question about the creation of our earth and life, well it's very hard to explain. Our world known as Earth was created by space dust containing various elements and atoms coming from exploded stars (other suns).

The space dust combined together by creating some sort of gravitational force and start to rotate around itself. The gravitational force towards the center of rotation increased with time and caused the space dust to form hard land. The water most probably came from comets (containing frozen water) hitting the earths surface.

The life itself was probably created by chance (the greatest inventor). Some amino acids that are in the optimum conditions can create life itself. Nowadays scientists are trying to create life in labs by simulating the conditions in the earth in its early creation ages.

It is a really big probability that there are other forms of life somewhere in the universe. They don`t have to look like us, they are most probably evolved in such way that they are adapted to their planet or the thing they live on/in. What I mean is that life is most probably not limited to the Earth.

I hope I answered your questions. Can Aviral from Turkey.


anon560 said: "So does this mean that there is a certain amount of matter that exists? Because when that super-dense super-hot mass expanded there must have been a limit to how dense it was....does that mean that space ends? Where does space end? Can it really go on forever? If not what is at the end?"

Well, some scientists believe that the Big Bang is a part of a bouncing motion. This means that the Big Bang is not one and only, but it is one of many.

The bouncing motion theory suggests that the Big Bang takes place, the universe expands until it reaches a limit, then the universe starts to crush under its own gravitational force(exactly how black holes form) and suddenly it becomes a point so dense and so hot that it causes a great expansion(we call this Big Bang).

You can`t ask a question such as, "What caused the first expansion of universe?" because this motion is like a circle --it has no beginning or ending. This was only a theory about the big bang that may be the answer to your question.

I hope I helped.

Can Aviral from Turkey.


anon75625: Good and evil are concepts of man and will exist as long as human 'beings' exist. As for GOD and religions, they are personal 'faith' decisions that deal with human morality and behavior and have little to do with 'science' education.

I do believe all the prophets existed and that, just like the average man, wanted the very best life and future for his family/flock. Unfortunately, we humans have to deal with human nature -- ourselves. Enough of that.

I would like to know what your proof of the 'big bang' is.


Good and evil don't exist. Being exists. We were here to figure out as much as we can, then die. There is proof of the big bang. There isn't proof of God, and there most likely never will be. Logically, to move forward, to expand our minds, science and study and proof must be first, and religion must be realized as a ridicule. Not just your Jesus Christ. Every religion in the world, is a ridicule.


Imagine three scenarios:

1) a planet with 7 billion people and 7 billion differing opinions.

2) a planet with 7 billion people and 7 billion similar opinions.

3) a planet with 7 billion people and no opinions.

Which planet would you prefer to live on? I don't know about you, but options 2 and 3 seem pretty bleak to me.

Differing opinions stimulate thinking. Thinking results in ideas which can produce growth, change, enlightenment. We are where we are today because "mother Earth" is closer to option one.

Do not be troubled by differing opinions -- it proves we are still evolving.


How can those of a religious standpoint always counter scientific knowledge by saying "How do you know that happened?" when their entire argument is based off of a book that a human in the past wrote.

If today a man were to claim that God has spoken to them and wrote a book about it, it would be completely ignored.

It is impossible to win an argument against a religious man if you are a scientific one. You can attempt to prove them wrong, but any question they ask can be countered by them making something up saying "God could have meant for it to be that way."

Science cannot get any accreditation without having proof behind what they state, yet religion can simply make up what they state to be true and that is enough for them to remain in a sense of right.


Anon52012: if you lived in a cave without light, after a few hundred or thousand generations your descendants wouldn't have eyes. They would have been bred out because there was no need for them. There you go. Evolution.

I think that it's wrong for religion and science to try and discredit each other. Neither has conclusive proof. Religious people are just being naive when they say "the Big Bang is bull, God created everything, I'm right, you're wrong, go to church", just as scientists are wrong to say "God doesn't exist, you're an idiot for believing in a myth". Neither side can prove anything.

What's the point in arguing about it? --Thomas.


Is it possible for those who believe in God and creation and those who believe in the science of evolution to both be right? I believe so. Science and evolution are not the devil, just as God and creation are not the whole picture. Why do people want to demonize those with a differing opinion, belief or point of view? An open mind works much better than a closed one. Evolution is a fact. The existence of good and evil is a fact.

Just as one human being has a life force energy so humankind has a combined life energy. An open mind can tap into this. Some people would call this energy God. No matter what you call it, it is a fact. Does good conquer evil? Yes, most of the time. Life as "we know it" and the fact that we exist today is proof. Evolution over a long period of time is interpreted as creation.

You are the product of your mother and father, yet you are unique. They are the product of their parents, yet different, and so on. Go back a million generations. Do you think you have evolved any? The "creation of man" seems more godlike than the "slow evolution of man" from what we might consider to be an animal by today's standard. Science is helping humankind get over itself. How can that be bad?


Whoever said evolution is more realistic? Scientists have absolutely no proof of evolution, in fossils or life today. They say it started with a single-celled organism, but they can't seem to tell us how this organism came to be. Nor can they tell us how life jumped from a single cell to a multimillion- celled creature! Did you ever look at the Darwinian tree? Well, oddly enough, the paths of apes and humans never cross! Don't believe me? Well, too bad, for those of you who trust scientists who actually never check their evidence with simple tests! (Yes it's true, research "Nebraska Man" if you don't believe me.)


Anon51616: Just so you know: nowhere in the Bible is there a date for creation. Period. The Bible says nothing about the exact date the earth was created. It does include historical information about other events, but not creation. There is no time reference at all. A small group of people believe the earth is about 10,000 years old, but there is absolutely nothing in Genesis, or anywhere else in the Bible, that gives any dates for creation.

The Bible also never says the earth is flat. In fact, the prophet Isaiah refers to the earth as a circle in the English translations. The Hebrew word (the language of the Old Testament) actually means "sphere" or "globe."

Get a good translation of the Bible and read it for yourself. Even if you don't believe in God, at least you'll then know what's really in the Bible and what isn't.


You God believers can´t ask "how was the big bang formed" or something in that way because it is the same question as who created God. and the Bible says that the earth was flat,

that the earth was made about six or eight thousand years ago. guess again. I want God to be true but it's not. so too bad for me


According to the Big Bang advocates the entire universe was condensed to a point as large as a proton and was located in a void. There is no such thing as a void. The entire concept of a void is well, void. It cannot exist with a proton size particle containing the universe because of the existence of the particle itself. It would no longer qualify as a void. The entire Big Bang is fraught with insurmountable problems and will be completely discredited sooner than later. Just the idea that light would know which way to travel, how fast and what particles it is made up of within milliseconds of the bang is ridiculous. Big Bang is religion, not science.


so is it really through? So what about God? it said in Genisis God created heaven and the earth.


Is it even possible to actually fully understand the big bang theory? --Nikki


pearls of wisdom. I would like to see physicists prove that protons do not orbit the nuclear core!


Physicists are wasting time and money looking for graviton particles and gravity waves -- they just don't exist. If they understood gravity they would know this. Here's another question for wisegeeks: What would the 'real' grand unified theory of physics be worth?


Do physicists yet realize that gravity repels at the subatomic level, that black holes are an effect caused by massive spiral galaxies

and that positive and negative charges are a myth? An examination of the history of physics explains why they haven't been able to put it together. tkhm


If the images that resulted in the 'big bang' theory are based on 'light' data that is several billions of years old and 'modern science' is maybe 100 years old, that's kind of like describing traffic patterns in all of North America by catching a small chunk of concrete falling from an overpass. Answer this for me! What if the universe has been contracting for one billion years? How would you know?

The 'big bang' theory is just that: an item for stimulating discussion or entertainment -- nothing more.


You know what the proton is, right? Well, all sub-protonic matter 'is' dark matter. In our atomic world, which totally exists because of the most famous product of fusion -- the neutron -- we have life as we know it. I wouldn't want to scare people, but given the possible combinations of dark matter particles, who can say for sure that 'dark life' doesn't exist? Could this be considered a 'negative universe' in our universe?...kind of a 'yin-yang' thing. Just because you can't see something or don't believe in that something, does not mean it doesn't exist. If they occupy 90 percent of space, maybe 'we' are just the experiment or entertainment. Do you ever feel you are being watched or something doesn't feel quite right?


If the big bang theory is true and our space system is expanding, then it seems logical that our galaxy, the Milky Way, should also be expanding? If it is expanding, then the distance between our planets must also be expanding. This isn’t happening, at least in my life time. The Big Bang theory is all wet.


Is there any correlation between man using only 10 percent of his brain and man being able to see only 10% of the matter in the universe? Oh, by the way -- if there was a big bang, it certainly didn't happen the way most physicists suggest. Everything that 'was' before, still 'is.' It is just in a different format, and the process is still on-going, the 'reformatting' that is. Here's a question for 'wise-geeks': What do you think matter is really made of?


It is possible to have the Steady State & Big Bang theories both legit from a certain perspective.It is also possible to have a simple explanation of gravity, dark matter, black holes, and a unified theory, .all of which could be understood by grade school students. The big mystery is why our so-called physicists haven't put it together yet? Oh,and theory does not rule out God, nor does it rule him in.


Alternative thinking??

I believe that existence did not start with a big bang of infinite smallness that created everything, this does not make sense. Even our best brains cannot figure this out even while agreeing with it.

It is very difficult to believe in the creation of everything from nothing. Magic as such does not exist.

Replace the big bang theory with the concept of a rip in the fabric in time or dimension that causes material from somewhere else to leak through. This would at least confer with the idea of everything developing from a single point.

If you consider the possibility of the rift being caused by a cataclysmic explosion in the other dimension, this could account for the idea that there was a great deal of heat at the conception. It is also possible that the frictional resistances involved in this gigantic upheaval could have caused the extreme temperatures involved.

It is more realistic at least to allow that the matter existed or still exists somewhere. That in itself is I think a more plausible theory.

This rip acts as a venturi that allows material through at an accelerating rate (like gas expanding from a liquid in a refrigeration process for want of a better analogy or compressed foam being released from a container into a void) that is actually causing the universal expansion.

The accumulation of the separate galaxies is caused by the pull action of gravity between the masses of different materials. Larger masses equate to higher gravitational forces and smaller masses creating smaller gravitational forces. This causes planetary alignments and galactic formation. At least this part of the old theory still makes sense.

This in turn keeps everything in check while the whole mass is still accelerating apart through the original venturi expansion forces.

The so called black holes in the center of most galaxies that are supposedly swallowing both mass and light are not black holes as such but reverse rips in the fabric in time or dimension that is causing all matter to return from where it came in an attempt for the whole to rebalance.

After all nature as we know it and existence itself, is all checks and balances. This could just be the ultimate and grand daddy of them all.


The Big Bang is supported with a lot of scientific evidence, and is accepted by most scientists today. You can't deny it happened when technology and science prove the theory. There's no question that all matter and energy were once condensed in a small small space. Then something happened, and all matter and energy exploded outward and took it's place. And all the planets and stars are constantly expanding outward still from this "center of the universe".

But why does the Big Bang Theory have to be so different and contradicting from what the Bible says? The Big Bang is just a scientific way of explaining what the Bible says happened. When everything was condensed then something happened and it all expanded and formed into what it is today, why can't that be the story of when God created the heavens and the earth? The Bible says God spoke for the heavens and the earth to be created, and *bam*! The heavens and the earth were created. I would imagine that would create a pretty big bang. And the theory of evolution does not denounce God. It does not say that we came from apes or monkeys, etc. The theory of evolution only says that humans and monkeys have a common ancestor. There was a monkey type animal that could walk on 2 feet and not use it's hands to support the top part of it's body. Scientists have the skeletons of these creatures. They were not human, and they were not monkey. They were in between. That's what the theory of evolution says. That we have a common ancestor. Not that humans came from monkeys.


Well as any argument goes we have a lot to learn not only about ourselves but about our very existence.

I think we are on a journey that will reveal itself as time unfolds it's secrets.

Anything is possible, but only in as much as limited by existing thought.

The world is not flat now is it?


anon18773... Isaiah 55:8 For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the *Lord*. So you have no right to question God about who created who.


The big bang theory is a simply outrageous idea. In no way is it confirmed. There is proof that the Bible is true. Archeological discoveries confirm. *There is no one God!!!!!!! It doesn't matter where God came from. He has always been. He said "I am that I am." he is everything. You must have faith. John 1:1-4


everyone is wrong and everyone is right, i say that because no one knows for sure and will never know for sure. i think people make to much of an issue out of this, and we shouldn't know why and how we are here. my personal opinions bring to me that there was something of a big bang theory, and man or apes were apart of some other distant universe and we evolved from that. i believe in no way that there is a god. i do believe that there was a man named jesus christ, he wasn't born on christmas, and the counting of the years didn't start then.


Big bang theory tell universe created from one finite particle, but where is this finite partical from?


In response to anon18773, we mortals do not have nor ever will have an understanding of the total universe and God. We only have concepts based on belief. This is where the infinity of time and space is which we can never comprehend.


For a discussion that is suppose to about the “big bang” one could say that it has degraded to nonsense. I would defy any and all to pose a definitively logical argument for or against the existence of a god. If not then shut up about it because this really lies in the realm of the philosophy of religion or theology, not science. In reality they are none, I’ve read them all, no theist or atheist be it Anselm’s ontological argument for or Richard Dawkins atheistic theory against has ever put for any facts that can definitively prove or disprove the existence of a god. Their all simply beliefs based on faith nothing more, nothing less.

But I digress, in this past century; we have learned how stars shine for billions of years and how the elements were formed. The known universe went from the Milky Way and an Earth a few million years old, to a vast structure of galactic clusters, quasars, pulsars, black holes, and gamma ray bursts that have evolved over a period of time of roughly 12-15 billion years. The “Big Bang” is a theoretical event that originated from an infinitely hot and infinitely dense singularity that rapidly expanded to create all the matter in the known universe, a spontaneous quantum fluctuation that created the structure and physical laws of the universe, and the beginning of space and time as we know it, all of this evolving through the material processes of self-organization. Our universe continues to expand and cool to this day, we live on a unique planet, circling a beautiful star clustered together with several hundred billion other stars in a galaxy soaring through the cosmos of an expanding universe. The adventure of ideas in physics and astronomy has been enormously mind-expanding. I believe that space is finite, because it has been expanding at a finite rate for a finite time.

In essence one must come to the understanding that you can either choose to believe that matter has existed for infinity or you can choose to believe that matter is causal in nature, meaning that there was nothing then a cause occurred bring matter into existence. At this point we don’t know exactly how this happened what we do know is we are here now, we exist and the physical universe exists. It really doesn’t necessarily matter whether or not you believe in a god, gods, or a particular philosophy the fact is we do exist period. Life does exist on this planet, in this solar system, and there’s a good chance it exist else where in this universe. The bigger question now is where do we go from here?


If you are going to say that god created everything, then what created god?


i have a few questions about what anon7798 posted. you figure if the big bang theory is really what created earth....what created man? science suggests apes...well, what created the apes?....did they evolve from stars and gases and dust particles and such? one way or another there has to be a higher power. in other words GOD. He had to create something that lived for all of us to be here. but i would love to hear feedback about what you think happened. if the big bang created earth and all solar systems and such...what created LIFE?


It's true though, religion and science always argue with each other. i mean, scientists think that we came from apes, and religious people think it was god and adam and eve. SO what is the truth?sometimes i think that the monkey discovery seems more realistic, although there most likely is a god.


Maybe all of you should look into string theory it in fact does have a very plausible explanation of how the Big Bang occurred.

As for God, whether or not he exists it's best to leave that out of these discussions, it has no bearing on the subject matter.


There is in fact a God and only one God, you look at all the big religions of this world and most of them believe in a God. This big bang theory proves that there most be a God because how could the big bang have gone off? Or how could the tiny protons have gotten there? This must mean God has created science.


science and religion need to stop fighting with each other. science doesn't disprove God, it proves the process of God's actions.

the big bang could be God's process of how He created the earth. OK, so we all know what happened in the big bang, but does anybody know what CAUSED it to happen?


Tbh, bringing religion into this discussion is completely obsurd. This theory, if proven correct will pretty much decimate any faith in religion. Im not an atheist but i hold an open mind to the realisation that god may not exist. Science may also be completely wrong. As for the first persons question, you have a good point there, is there a limit to how much mass there is in our universe? tho when you ask does space end? i think we need to find where space begins before anyone can even attempt to judge that. Personally i can understand why we as humans who live with limitations can't comprehend how something can just never come to an end but without driving yourself insane thinking about this, you may as well just stop this trail of thought because it would take us over 2 million years to reach Andromeda (our nearest solar system) which means we're never going to explore far enough to ever find an end to the universe, and what will we find at the end? see what im saying...some things will never be discovered. If Einstein's theory of relativity is correct then it is going to be seriously difficult to ever explore even Andromeda let alone anywhere else in this universe seeing as once something achieves the speed of light, it's changed into energy, even if Cryo-stasis is greatly improved, there is just to much that could go wrong with some kind of auto-pilot, comets, black holes, solar flares, planetary bodies not discovered on our set course. 2 million years of cryo-stasis wouldn't be possible. Worm holes are the only real way i can think of that kind of exploration ever becoming a possibility and even then there are so many things we don't understand about them, infact we barely even know if they exist. It's great to ask questions but there's no point in driving yourself nuts asking questions that are impossible to answer with our current knowledge. Thanks, hope you enjoyed reading what i had to say :)



the theory of expansion of earth. and the big bang theory is there in holyQuran. every thing created by god only.believe. believe some truths.some will take time to understand but truth is always truth.our life time is toooooo small to research and find out some hidden truths .from micro to macro.if you can you you will reach an ultimate truth.that is god .god gives you brain to he is giving another opportunity........a life after death is waiting for us .be prepare for that.Quran,bible, injeel, touraath, etc, are the information of God. Man made changes in each except Quran. God is great.


So does this mean that there is a certain amount of matter that exists? Because when that super-dense super-hot mass expanded there must have been a limit to how dense it was....does that mean that space ends? Where does space end? Can it really go on forever? If not what is at the end?

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